Fermentation is one of the oldest and most economical methods used to preserve and improve shelf-life, flavor, texture, and functional properties of foods. In general, lactic acid bacteria of various breeds predominate in food fermentation, including Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, and Pediococcus. However, in addition to these bacteria, yeast, and fungi also contribute to food fermentation. In Turkey, the most widely produced and consumed traditional foods are yogurt, buttermilk, kefir, kımız, tarhana, boza, pickles, shalgam juice, hardaliye, and sucuk. This review aims to identify the most common traditional fermented products and to emphasize some microbiological characteristics as well as the health effects of fermented products.