INTRODUCTION: Trauma is a major health problem in the pediatric age group. Various etiological factors can be accounted for the traumas, and they cause significant mortality and morbidity in children. Multiple scoring systems have been developed for evaluating trauma patients. The present study aims to investigate to find out which trauma scoring system used in pediatric trauma is superior to others.
METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in the Emergency Department of a private university hospital that accepts over 200.000 patients annually. Records of all 20314 trauma cases between 0 and 18 years of age, who were referred to ED of a private university hospital in two years, were searched, and 251 of them who were hospitalized evaluated retrospectively. Demographical, etiological, and clinical characteristics, including scores of five trauma scoring systems, were analyzed.
RESULTS: The mean age of the cases was 6.8±5.4 years, 86.9% of the cases had blunt trauma, and 46.9% had isolated head trauma. The most frequent trauma type was falling from a height (57.3%), followed by traffic accidents (25.8%). Mean pediatric trauma score of the patients was 9.41±1.32, mean Glasgow Coma Score was 14.79±0.88, mean Injury Severity Score was 7.74±8.44, mean Revised Trauma Score was 7.84±0, mean Trauma Revised Injury Severity Score blunt was 98.45±7.71 and mean Trauma Revised Injury Severity Score penetrating was 98.61±6.90. The mean duration of the Intensive Care Unit and ward stay was 2.6±3.1 and 1.9±2 days, respectively, and the total duration of hospitalization was 2.2±2.7 days.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The trauma scores provide predictive value for clinical severity and treatment in the initial evaluation of cases at admission to the Emergency Department. In this study, we found that Injury Severity Score and Trauma Revised Injury Severity Score are more valuable than the other scoring systems for determining the patient's length of stay in the hospital.
Keywords: Emergency department, pediatric trauma; trauma score.