Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of disability, morbidity and mortality in the world. Atherosclerosis is accepted as a chronic progressive inflammatory disease. The inflammatory cascade in the vascular wall is well-defined. However, the predictors and contributors of the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis are not completely understood. Systemic and local inflammation, which enhance the burden of inflammation in the vascular wall, have been proposed as risk factors for the progression of atherosclerosis. Infectious micro-organisms are one of the major triggering factors for local and systemic inflammation. In this review, we aimed to emphasize the linkage between micro-organisms and the progression of atherosclerosis. We briefly summarize the current medical literature and discuss the future perspectives of the linkage between microbial agents and atherosclerosis representing cause and effect.