Bladder cancer is a major health problem across the world, mainly due to its association with tobacco abuse. A final diagnosis is achieved through cystoscopy and resection of tumours for pathological examination. Detection of recurrent disease is based on cystoscopic follow-up as well as urine-related examinations. As the risk of disease recurrence requires quite frequent endoscopic surveillance, follow-up is hampered by patient anxiety and discomfort, accompanied by a high number of cystoscopies either at the office or in the hospital; furthermore, cost is a factor. Therefore, the high number of endoscopic interventions makes bladder cancer one of the most costly of all tumours in both the US and Europe.1-3 Thus, theavailability of a tumour marker that may help to discover the presence of a tumour in the bladder either initially or during follow-up would be extremely useful. Currently, many markers are under evaluation; the following article focuses on some of the mostrelevant. © Touch Briefings 2008.