The aim of this study was to determine the effect of motivational interviewing (MI) on adherence to treatment and quality of life in chronic hemodialysis patients. This study was conducted with a randomized controlled pretest, posttest, and follow-up design from March to July 2016 in the hemodialysis center. After the intervention (n = 30) and control groups (n = 30) completed a pretest, patients in the intervention group received four individual face-to face MI sessions per month. Then both groups participated in a posttest, 3 months after which a follow-up was conducted. A significant increase in adherence to treatment (according to both subjective and objective data) was observed in the experimental group compared to the control group. No significant difference was found between the two groups in their quality of life scores; however, within the experimental group, there was a significant increase in these scores between the posttest and the 3-month follow-up.