Studies reported that there is a close relationship between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and testis carcinoma. Both tumors can be presented as synchronal tumors, or as testicular metastases of HCC or as hepatic metastases of testicular tumor(). HCC is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and the incidence of HCC increases with age(). The relationship between hepatitis B incidence and HCC rates is also well recognized. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is produced by 70% of HCC. Though a level of AFP >400 ng/mL is diagnostic for HCC, in the presence of active hepatitis B infection, the cut-off level should be considered to be at least 1 000-4 000 ng/mL. Like HCC, germ cell tumors of the testis also release AFP; but it is shown that some of Sertoli cell tumors of testis can also release AFP(). Herein we have reported about the first case of HCC in the literature which is presented concomitantly with Sertoli-Leydig tumor of testis, leading to extremely high level of AFP in a 21-year-old man. (C) 2005 The WJG Press and Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.