Recently, a functional T to G polymorphism at nucleotide 309 in the promoter region of the MDM2 gene (rs: 2279744, SNP 309) has been identified. This polymorphism has an impact on the expression of the MDM2 gene, which is a key negative regulator of the tumor suppressor molecule p53. The effect of T309G polymorphism of the MDM2 gene on bladder cancer susceptibility was investigated in a case-control study of 75 bladder cancer patients and 103 controls from Turkey. The GIG genotype exhibited an increased risk of 2.68 (95% CI, 1.34-5.40) for bladder cancer compared with the combination of low-risk genotypes T/T and T/G at this locus. These results show an association between MDM2 T309G polymorphism and bladder cancer in our study group. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting that MDM2 T309G polymorphism may be a potential genetic susceptibility factor for bladder cancer.