Introduction: The aim of our study was to determine lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant enzyme activity in umbilical cord blood of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. Materials and methods: Umbilical cord arterial blood samples were collected from 21-term singleton SGA newborn infants and 21 age- and sex-matched appropriate for gestational age (AGA) term neonates prospectively born by elective cesarean section for determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) for antioxidant activity. Results: MDA levels were increased (5.20vs. 3.52 nmol/mL; p < 0.001), while levels of SOD (6.24vs. 8.99 U/mL; p < 0.01) were decreased in SGA neonates when compared with AGA newborn infants. Conclusions: Elevated MDA levels and decreased SOD activity in umbilical cord blood may show the possibility of insufficient protective mechanisms against increased oxidative stress in SGA neonates born by cesarean section.