Background: Intravascular catheters are integral to the practice of modern medicine. Potential risk factors for catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) include underlying disease, method of catheter insertion, and duration and purpose of catheterization. The administration of parenteral nutrition (PN) through intravascular catheters increases CRBSI risks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors of CRBSI in patients with PN. administration. Methods: This study was conducted at the Karadeniz Technical University Hospital between October 2003 and November 2004. All the patients to whom PN was administered through intravascular catheters were prospectively monitored for the presence of CRBSI and risk factors. Results: During the study period, 111 intravascular catheters through which PN was administered were monitored for a total of 1646 catheter-days. CRBSI was determined in 31 cases, a CRBSI rate of 18.8 per 1000 catheter-days. When risk factors affecting CRBSI were investigated using logistic regression, an increase in APACHE II score (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.21; p = .012), prolongation of catheterization (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.14; p = .004), catheterization in emergent conditions (OR, 5.45; 95% CI, 1.20-24.82; p = .016), and poor patient hygiene (OR, 4.38; 95% CI, 1.3913.78; p = .019) were all determined to be independent risk factors. Proper implementation of hand hygiene and maximal barrier precautions during the insertion of catheters reduced CRBSI levels (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.09-0.88; p = .003 and OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.93; p = .017, respectively). Conclusions: It was concluded that the duration of catheterization should be shortened; that the intravascular catheter, which is inserted in urgent situations, should be removed as soon as possible; and that maximal sterile barrier precautions should be taken and due attention should be paid to hand hygiene.