Aim: To evaluate the indications, complications, and outcomes of temporary peritoneal dialysis (TPD) in children with acute renal failure (ARF). Patients and methods: All patients undergoing TPD between February 2006 and January 2011 in a children's hospital were included in the study. Patient characteristics, indications, complications, and duration of TPD (DPD), requirement of re-operation, length of stay, presence of sepsis, and outcome were recorded. Results: There were 21 newborns (14 prematures), 9 infants, and 9 children. The main nephrotoxic agents were gentamicin (n = 7), netilmisin (n = 5), vancomycin (n = 3), and ibuprophen (n = 3). Patients with multiorgan failure (n = 9) had significantly higher blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels than those without multiorgan failure (n = 30) [BUN: 94 +/- 27.3 vs. 34.3 +/- 4.9) and creatinine: 4.1 +/- 0.8 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.2)]. The mean DPD was longer in mature patients than in prematures (newborn: 3.7; children: 7.1). Nine complications were observed (23%) (leakage in three and poor drainage in six patients). Twenty-five patients (64.1%) responded to TPD treatment and were discharged, and 14 patients (10 newborns and 7 of them were premature) died (35.9%). Mortality rate was higher in prematures (n = 7) and patients with a history of nephrotoxic agent (n = 10). Conclusion: TPD is effective especially in neonates with ARF and it is a reliable alternative to the hemodialysis or other continuous renal replacement therapies but it is not free of complications. It has limited effects, particularly in patients with multiorgan failure.