Objective: Altered paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) activities have been shown in anemic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and in iron deficiency anemia (IDA) patients. Whether accompanying anemia alone is responsible for this diminished PON and ARE activities in CKD patients or an additive factor for this is not well studied. Therefore, we tried to clarify this issue here. Methods: A total of 82 subjects that consisted of 19 patients with IDA (group 1), 23 anemic CKD patients (group 2), and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects (group 3) were enrolled. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), serum total thiol (-SH), PON, and ARE activities of the participants were analyzed. Results: Group 2 patients had significantly lowest serum levels of Total -SH, PON and ARE. Further comparison showed that total -SH, PON and ARE levels were lower in group 1 than group 3 (p=0.0001 in both). Regarding comparison of group 1 and 2, only serum ARE levels were significantly lower in group 2 (p=0.001). PON activity was not different between group 1 and group 2 whereas ARE activity was lower in group 2 than groups 1 and 3. In addition, correlation analysis showed that CIMT was negatively correlated with PON and ARE. Conclusions: This markedly decreased ARE activity in CKD patients, which could not be explained by the anemia alone, may have a role in the pathogenesis of increased atherosclerosis in such patients. Still further studies are needed to certain this.