In an effort to define new cancer-testis (CT) genes, we investigated whether BRDT, a testis-restricted member of the RING3 family of transcriptional regulators, is also expressed in cancer. Standard RT-PCR expression analysis detected BRDT transcripts in 12 of 47 cases of non-small cell lung cancer and single cases of both squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (1/12) and esophagus (1/12) but not in melanoma or in cancers of the colon, breast, kidney and bladder. Typing of 33 non-small cell lung cancers for coexpression of a panel of CT antigens revealed a high incidence (60%) of MAGE-3 mRNA expression, followed by MAGE-1 (36%), CT7/MAGE-C1 (30%), CT10 (30%), SSX4 (23%), BRDT (21%), NY-ESO-1 (21%) and HOM-MEL-40/SSX2 (15%). The coexpression pattern of these antigens provides a foundation for developing a polyvalent lung cancer vaccine. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.