Balos concentric sclerosis (BCS) is a rare demyelinating disease considered to be a variant of multiple sclerosis. Five BCS cases were diagnosed antemortem based on their typical concentric mass patterns on MR images and based on clinical and CSF findings. Histopathologic investigation was also performed in one case. Our case report supports the concept that BCS may be a self-limited disease that is not always fatal. Characteristic MR imaging findings may allow antemortem diagnosis of BCS when performed at the onset of the disease.