[Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis among 20 Years and Older Individuals in Trabzon, Turkey].


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Karakullukçu S., Beyhun N. E. , Kaklıkkaya N., Köksal I. , Topbaş M., Buruk C. K. , ...More

Mikrobiyoloji bulteni, vol.55, pp.233-247, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 55
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.5578/mb.20219909
  • Title of Journal : Mikrobiyoloji bulteni
  • Page Numbers: pp.233-247
  • Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, toxoplasmosis, seroprevalence, community, Turkey, GONDII INFECTION, RISK-FACTORS, DIABETES-MELLITUS, PREGNANT-WOMEN, PREVALENCE, POPULATION, HUMANS, SEROPOSITIVITY, ANTIBODIES, DIAGNOSIS

Abstract

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most prevalent zoonotic parasites. The fact that the infection is mostly asymptomatic in immunocompromised individuals causes the disease to be recovered without realising and ignored. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and the factors associated with seroprevalence in individuals aged 20 and over. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Trabzon which is a high populated city of Turkey with the participation of individuals aged 20 and over. The calculated sample size including 50% unknown prevalence, 3% deviation and one pattern effect was 1066 people. Since the rural-urban, gender and age stratification was performed in the study, the goal was to reach 1500 people by adding the possibility of 40% loss and finally a total of 1502 people were reached. Field research was carried out in two stages. First, household visits were conducted and face-to-face interviews were performed. Then, blood samples were collected to determine anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. The presence and the level of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in serum samples by using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method. In the scope of the research, 767 (51.1%) of the participants were women and 735 (48.9%) of them were men and their average age was 45.7 +/- 16.9 years. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM seropositivity among the participants were 58.8% and 2.3%, respectively. It was observed that seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis increased as age and body mass index increased and as the income increased seroprevalence decreased. Seropositivity was found to be statistically significantly higher in those who were working in gardening and field work, those who were working in animal husbandry, those who resided in rural districts, those whose marital status was married, those whose education level was primary school or below, those who had high-risk professions, those with diabetes and those with psychiatric disorders. There was no significant difference in seropositivity among those who ate raw meat and milk, unwashed fruit and vegetables, cat owners and used unprocessed water. In the logistic regression model, it was determined that age (OR= 1.05; 95% CI= 1.04-1.06) and working in gardening and field work (OR= 1.31; 95% CI= 1.03-1.67) were independent risk factors and education status of primary school and below (OR= 1.41; 95% CI: 1.07-1.86) was a risk-increasing factor. In our study, anti-Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity was found to be relatively higher compared to the other studies conducted in the world and Turkey. Awareness of individuals working in gardening and field work about toxoplasmosis must be enhanced. Clinicians must consider the fact that toxoplasmosis can be more frequently observed in individuals with diabetes and psychiatricdisorders.