Object. The goal of surgery in high-grade gliomas is to maximize the resection of contrast-enhancing tumor without causing additional neurological deficits. Intraoperative MRI improves surgical results. However, when using contrast material intraoperatively, it may be difficult to differentiate between surgically induced enhancement and residual tumor. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of intraoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI to guide this differential diagnosis and test it against tissue histopathology.