We investigated the effect of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes, and GSTP1 313 A/G polymorphism on bladder cancer susceptibility in a case control study of 121 bladder cancer patients, and 121 age- and sex-matched controls of the Turkish population. The adjusted odds ratio for age, sex, and smoking status is 1.94 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.15-3.26] for the GSTM1 null genotype, and 1.75 (95% CI 1.03-2.99) for the GSTP1 313 A/G or G/G genotypes. GSTT1 was shown not to be associated with bladder cancer. Combination of the two high-risk genotypes, GSTM1 null and GSTP1 313 A;G or G/G. revealed that the risk increases to 3.91-fol (95% CI 1.88-8.13) compared with the combination of the low-risk genotypes of these loci. In individuals with the combined risk factors of cigarette smoking and the GSTM1 null genotype, the risk of bladder cancer is 2.81 times (95% CI 1.23-6.35) that of persons who both carry the GSTM1-present genotype and do not smoke. Similarly, the risk is 2.38-fold (95% CI 1.12-4.95) for the combined GSTP1 313 A/G and G/G genotypes and smoking. These findings support the role for the GSTM1 null and the GSTP1 313 AG or GG genotypes in the development of bladder cancer. Furthermore, gene-gene (GSTM1-GSTP1) and gene-environment (GSTM1-smoking, GSTP1-smoking) interactions increase this risk substantially.