Integration of clinical skills, ethical decision-making, and reflection skills have emerged as cornerstones of clinical teaching in medical schools. This study aimed to detect whether a multimodal learning environment approach consisting of lectures, a drill, post-drill video debriefing, and written reflection in an emergency medicine rotation boot camp improves interns’ patient management skills, ethical decision-making, and reflection skills.
A multimodal learning environment was created by the collaboration of emergency medicine, ethics, and medical education specialists. Multiple educational techniques involving lectures, case discussions, and role-playing a crisis scenario were applied. Pre-test and post-test, debriefing on performances on video records, video-recorded performance assessment, and reflective essays about their own and group’s performances were used to assess various aspects of the student performances. Additionally, a meeting was organized with the presence of the authors to create qualitative data obtained through the program evaluation meeting conducted on three themes: influences of teaching methods, students’ performances, and common achievements and mistakes of students.
133 students participated. Post-test multiple-choice question (MCQ) test scores were slightly higher than pre-test. A low and medium correlation was detected among pre-test and post-test patient management problem (PMP) and reflection scores, which was more prominent for female students. Multiple linear regression showed that pre-test and post-test PMP scores significantly contributed to reflection scores. These results might support that better patient management predicts more robust reflective practice. Teachers observed that students appreciated being inspired by well-performing peers, particularly noting the empathic needs of patients, companions, and other health professionals. However, students overlooked summoning forensic or social services and were inhibited by the pressure of the contextual traits of the drill.
The multimodal learning environment created by multidisciplinary collaboration contributed to the improvement of components of situational awareness of the interns: patient management skills, ethical decision-making, and reflective practice. During this research, we created a toolbox better to capture the richness and diversity of student interactions. Considering the scarcity of context-specific assessment methods and widespread use of MCQs or generic scales for higher-order thinking skills in medicine, this study might be regarded as a step forward in that context.