The transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) is a regulatory cytokine with both tumor suppressor and tumor-promoting effects in breast cancer (BC) cell lines and tissue. Data about level of circulating TGFB1 and its prognostic significance in BC patients is conflicting. The objective of this study is to determine the clinical significance of the serum TGFB1 levels in BC patients. We enrolled 96 female patients with histopathologically diagnosed BC who did not receive chemotherapy (CT) or radiotherapy. Serum TGFB1 levels were measured by ELISA method and compared with 30 healthy controls. The mean serum TGFB1 level of BC patients was significantly higher than controls (0.08 vs. 0.04 ng/ml, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference according to known disease-related clinicopathological or laboratory parameters. Serum TGFB1 level had a significant impact on overall survival in both univariate (p = 0.01) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.013). Serum TGFB1 level is elevated in BC patients and has a favorable prognostic value. However, it has no predictive role on CT response.