Introduction: Etiology of serum anti-p53 antibodies in bladder cancer patients is still unknown. In this study we evaluated the relationship between serum anti-p53 antibodies and microvessel density in bladder cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder were assessed prospectively (18 Ta, 30 T-1, 28 T-2 greater than or equal to). Serum anti-p53 antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tumor p53 overexpression was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Vessels were stained immunohistochemically using an antibody against platelet endothelial cell-adhesion molecule CD31. Spearman correlation test and t test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Serum anti-p53 antibodies were positive in 25 (60%) of 41 tumor p53-positive patients. While the mean (SD, range) microvessel density was found to be 43 (7.59, 8-99) in patients who had positive serum anti-p53 antibodies, it was found to be 23 (4.53, 6-98) in patients who had negative serum anti-p53 antibodies. There was a good correlation between serum anti-p53 antibodies and microvessel density (p<0.05). No correlation was found between tumor p53 expression and microvessel density (p>0.05). Conclusions: We found that there is a significant correlation between the microvessel density and serum anti-p53 antibodies. This result may show the role of angiogenesis in the etiology of serum anti-p53 antibodies in bladder cancer patients. Copyright (C) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.