The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of bladder volume on bladder base doses during gynaecological intracavitary high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. 42 different intracavitary HDR brachytherapy applications (tandem and ovoid, 25; ovoid, 17) were performed in 41 patients treated for cervical (n=29) and endometrial (n=12) cancer. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) bladder reference point (BRP) dose and doses of 17 points selected on the bladder base were calculated using planning orthogonal radiographs taken after applicator placement with 100 ml and 270 ml bladder volumes. The effect of bladder volume on ICRU BRP and bladder base maximum point (BBMP) doses were analysed for both types of applications. Median ICRU BRP doses (in percentage of prescription dose) were 36.2% (18.2-69.8%) and 40.0% (21.0-61.8%) for ovoid applications (p=0.13) and 34.9% (15.7-81.0%) and 33.8% (16.5-88.1%) for tandem and ovoid applications (p=0.48) in 100 ml and 270 ml bladder volumes, respectively. Median BBMP doses were 75.1% (33.8-141.0%) and 104.0% (62.8-223.0%) for ovoid applications (p < 0.001) and 116% (51.2-242.0%) and 124.0% (62.0-326%) for tandem and ovoid applications (p=0.018) in 100 ml and 270 ml bladder volumes, respectively. Although the BBMP dose significantly increases, the ICRU BRP dose does not change with increasing bladder volume in gynaecological intracavitary HDR brachytherapy. Increasing bladder volume increases bladder base maximum dose in intracavitary gynaecological brachytherapy.