Aims: We evaluated the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) in Type 2 diabetic patients and its relationship with dyspeptic symptoms and complications of diabetes. Materials and methods: Seventy-eight Type 2 diabetic patients (54 females, 24 males, mean age: 51.9 +/- 10.6 yr) and 71 non-diabetic control subjects were involved in the study. Patients were questioned for dyspeptic symptoms. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy were investigated in diabetic patients. Upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy was performed for all patients and gastric biopsies were obtained and searched for HP. Results: Helicobacter pylori prevalence was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (75.6 vs 46%, p < 0.05). No differences were found between women and men with regard to HP infection status in diabetic patients. There was no relation between HP and diabetic complications, nephropathy and retinopathy. Helicobacter pylori prevalence was significantly higher in diabetic patients with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy than in diabetic patients without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (90.6 vs 44.0%, p < 0.02). Forty-seven subjects with diabetes had symptoms of dyspepsia (60.3%) and the prevalence of HP was higher in these patients (p < 0.002). Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of HP infection in diabetic patients and it is correlated with dyspeptic symptoms. Diabetic subjects complicated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and dyspepsia are at high risk of HP infection and should be carefully investigated and considered for eradication therapy. (c) 2005, Editrice Kurtis.