Our objective was to determine the significance of hazelnuts as the causative agent in pediatric foreign body aspirations in the main hazelnut production region of the world. We conducted a 10-year retrospective review of patients admitted to the pediatric surgery department in a 900-bed university hospital. Of 135 children with foreign body aspiration, hazelnut aspiration was identified in 35 (26%). All patients were younger than 5 years of age, and 32% of the hazelnut aspirations occurred during late summer, coinciding with the hazelnut harvest. We conclude that hazelnut aspiration is a public health problem in our region in children younger than 5 years of age, particularly during harvest-time. Hazelnut aspiration can be prevented by a well-defined public education program and precautionary measures taken by government and civil organizations.