The aim of the present study was to determine synovial levels of ELR (+) CXC chemokines, known to attract mainly neutrophils to inflamed tissues by binding the neutrophil chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 and promoting neovascularization in patients with various inflammatory disorders. The study group consisted of 14 patients with Behcet's disease and nine with familial Mediterranean fever. Fourteen patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 16 with osteoarthritis served as controls. Synovial chemokine levels were measured by two-step sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and significant differences were found in the various chemokines studied. In addition to its angiogenic properties, increased synovial levels of interleukin-8 by attraction of more neutrophils to synovial fluids might also be responsible for the acute synovitis in patients with Behcet's disease. However, the absence of chronic changes with the eventual development of pannus and erosions might result from relatively lower expression of interleukin-8 and the transient, short-lived nature of the arthritis observed in these patients.