Human bocavirus (HBoV) which was described in 2005 by molecular techniques, is a member of Parvoviridae. The role of HBoV is being questioned in acute respiratory diseases (ARD) in many recent studies. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of HBoV DNA in the respiratory specimens of patients with ARD. A total of 155 throat swab and/or washing specimens from 76 children and 79 adults with ARD were examined. HBoV DNA was investigated by single step in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using NS1 primers (5-'TATGGCCAAGGCAATCGTCCAAG-3', 5'-GCC GCGTGAACATGAGAAA-CAG-3') which amplify the 290 base pair region of NS1 gene located between nucleotides 1545-1835 of prototype HBoV st1 strain. HBoV DNA was detected in 5 (6.5%) of 76 children and 2 (2.5%) of 79 adults. Three sequenced samples showed 100% homology with the reference sequences. This study in which HBoV DNA was detected in children and adults with ARD, is the first HBoV prevalence study in Turkey. Larger scale prospective clinical and molecular studies are required to explain the association between HBoV and respiratory disease.