in: Oxidative Stress in Heart Diseases, Chakraborti S,Dhalla N,Ganguly N,Dikshit N, Editor, Springer, Singapore, pp.207-233, 2019
Aging, which is associated with several undesirable processes, is a complex phenomenon. Aging mechanisms are not fully comprehended yet, however, diseased and aged cells are correlated with accumulation of senescent cells. Various studies have revealed that aging leads to structural and functional changes in cardiac cells. During aging, stresses such as telomere shortening and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce cellular senescence which is characterized by permanent cell cycle arrest and secretion of inflammatory proteins that affect tissue environment. Especially, the effect of oxidative stress and ROS generation on macromolecules have been considered important in the modulation of various age-associated chronic disorders and the lifespan. Recent studies have shown the presence senescent phenotype in endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of patients with heart failure, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Existence of senescent vascular cells indicates that cellular senescence has a causative role in the pathology of cardiovascular diseases. There is also accumulating evidence that impairment in systemic metabolism is connected by cellular senescence. Therefore, clearance of senescent cells or suppression of cellular senescence is suggested as an important field for future investigation and the discovery of senolytics is seen as a promising therapy of vascular diseases. This chapter describes the phenomenon of cellular senescence with emphasis to its link to oxidative stress during aging and its essential role on the pathology of the vascular system.