Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease in which genetic determinants are modulated by hormonal, environmental and nutritional factors. The balance between bone resorption and bone formation seems to be regulated by a variety of growth factors and cytokines. An important clinical risk factor in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis is the presence of genetic polymorphisms in susceptibility genes. In this study, we investigated the association between osteoporosis and interleukin 10 (IL-10) -597 C>A and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) T869C (also named Leu10>Pro) polymorphisms in Turkish postmenopausal women. Genomic DNA obtained from 255 individuals (152 osteoporotic and 103 healthy controls). The DNA sample was isolated from peripheral bloods by salting-out method and analyzed by the techniques of PCR-RFLP. Genotype and allele frequencies were calculated and data were analyzed using the chi(2) test. We found a statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to IL-10 genotype distribution (p = 0.001) and allele frequencies (p < 0.0002). However, we did not found any difference between the groups with regarding TGF-beta 1 genotype distribution and allele frequencies (p > 0.05). In the combined genotype analysis, IL-10/TGF-beta 1 CCCC combine genotype was also estimated risk factor for osteoporosis in Turkish postmenopausal women (p = 0.026). To our knowledge, this is the first report to examine IL-10 gene 597 C>A polymorphism and osteoporosis in Turkish population. (C) 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.