UROLOGY ANNALS, cilt.7, ss.8-16, 2015 (ESCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi)
Controversies exist about the best method for managing the distal ureter during the laparoscopic (LNU) and robot-assisted nephroureterectomy (RANU). Therefore, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched in order to identify articles describing the management of distal ureter during LNU or RANU in patients suffering from upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma. Forty seven articles were selected for their relevance to the subject of this review. The approaches that are usually performed regarding the distal ureter management are open excision, transurethral resection of ureteral orifice (Pluck Technique), ureteric intussusception and pure LNU or pure RANU. Pure LNU and RANU with complete laparoscopic dissection and suture reconstruction of ureter and bladder cuff seems to be better tolerated than open nephroureterectomy providing equal efficacy, without deteriorating the oncological outcome, however evidence is poor. Transurethral resection of the ureteric orifice and the bladder cuff after occlusion of the ureter with a balloon catheter seems to be an attractive alternative option for low stage, low grade tumors of the renal pelvis and the proximal ureter, while stapling technique is correlated with the increased risk of positive surgical margins. The open resection of the distal ureter in continuity with the bladder cuff is considered the most reliable approach, preferred in our practice as well, however the existing data are based on retrospective and non-randomized studies.