Limbic encephalitis (LE) is a paraneoplastic neurological disorder in which, typically, the neurological symptoms occur before the cancer is diagnosed. We report on a 52-year-old male with LE who has depressive and anxiety symptoms. Cranial MRI revealed increased hippocampal signal intensities in both temporal lobes. Extensive range of symptoms concerning emotion, personality and social functioning was assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological formulation. The neuropsychological test battery showed dysfunction of hippocampus, medial temporal lobes, limbic system and frontal diencephalic structures. The current literature about the neurological mechanisms underlying the neuropsychological findings of LE is also briefly reviewed in this report.