Recent advancements in proteomics have enabled the generation of high-quality data sets useful for applications ranging from target and monoclonal antibody (mAB) discovery to bioprocess optimization. Comparative proteomics approaches have recently been used to identify novel disease targets in oncology and other disease conditions. Proteomics has also been applied as a new avenue for mAb discovery. Finally, CHO and Escherichia coli cells represent the dominant production hosts for biopharmaceutical development, yet the physiology of these cells types has yet to be fully established. Proteomics approaches can provide new insights into these cell types, aiding in recombinant protein production, cell growth regulation, and medium formulation. Optimization of sample preparations and protein database developments are enhancing the quantity and accuracy of proteomic results. In these ways, innovations in proteomics are enriching biotechnology and bioprocessing research across a wide spectrum of applications.