A rapid, ultrasensitive voltammetric biosensor for determining SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in real samples


Liv L., Coban G., NAKİBOĞLU N., KOCAGÖZ Z. T.

BIOSENSORS & BIOELECTRONICS, vol.192, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 192
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.bios.2021.113497
  • Title of Journal : BIOSENSORS & BIOELECTRONICS
  • Keywords: Electrochemical biosensor, Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, Viral detection, COVID-19, Voltammetry, DYNAMICS

Abstract

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to threaten public health systems all around the world. In controlling the viral outbreak, early diagnosis of COVID-19 is pivotal. This article describes a novel method of voltammetrically determining severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein with a newly designed sensor involving bovine serum albumin, SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody and a functionalised graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (BSA/AB/f-GO/GCE) or screen-printed electrode (BSA/AB/f-GO/SPE). The oxidation reaction based on the antibody-antigen protein interaction was evaluated as a response to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at -200 mV and 1430 mV with the BSA/AB/f-GO/SPE and BSA/AB/fGO/GCE, respectively. The developed sensors, BSA/AB/f-GO/SPE and BSA/AB/f-GO/GCE, could detect 1 ag/mL of virus spike protein in synthetic, saliva and oropharyngeal swab samples in 5 min and 35 min, and both sensors demonstrated a dynamic response to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein between 1 ag/mL and 10 fg/mL. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), rapid antigen test and the proposed method were applied to saliva samples. When compared to RT-PCR, it was observed that the developed method had a 92.5% specificity and 93.3% sensitivity. Moreover, BSA/AB/f-GO/SPE sensor achieved 91.7% accuracy compared to 66.7% accuracy of rapid antigen test kit in positive samples. In view of these findings, the developed sensor provides great potential for the diagnosing of COVID-19 in real samples.