No disease-specific neuronal antibodies have so far been defined in neuro-Behcet's disease (NBD). Immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry studies showed antibodies to hippocampal and cerebellar molecular layers and the surface antigens of cultured hippocampal neurons in sera and/or cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) of 13 of 20 NBD and 6 of 20 BD patients but not in multiple sclerosis or headache controls. Screening with a protein macroarray led to identification of stress-induced-phosphoprotein-1 (STIP-1) as an antigenic target. High-titer STIP-1-antibodies were detected in 6 NBD patients' sera but not in controls. These results suggest that neuronal antibodies could be useful as diagnostic biomarkers in NBD. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.