Radiotherapy (RT) may result in platelet activation and thrombosis development. To the best of our knowledge, the potential effect of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), a novel radiotherapy technique, on platelet function and microRNA (miRNA/miR) expression has not been previously investigated. The present study aimed to determine the effect of VMAT on the alterations in platelet function parameters and miRNA expression levels. A total of 25 patients with prostate cancer and 25 healthy subjects were included in the present study. Blood samples were collected from the patient group on the day prior to RT (pre-RT), the day RT was completed (post-RT day 0), and 40 days following the end of therapy (post-RT day 40). Platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV) value, platelet aggregation, plasma P-selectin, thrombospondin-1, platelet factor 4, plasma miR-223 and miR-126 expression levels were measured. A significant decrease in platelet count in the post-RT day 0 group was measured in comparison with the pre-RT and the post-RT day 40 groups. Pre-RT MPV values were higher than those of the post-RT day 0 and the post-RT day 40 groups. No significant differences were observed in the levels of platelet activation markers or miR-223 and miR-126 expression levels between the RT groups. Although RT may result in a reduction in platelet and MPV counts, the results of the present study indicate that platelet activation markers are not affected by VMAT. Therefore, it is possible that no platelet activation occurs during VMAT, owing to the conformal dose distributions, improved target volume coverage and the sparing of normal tissues from undesired radiation.