The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions and attitudes about child neglect of a group of mothers, in Ankara, Turkey, and to determine the factors affecting perception and attitudes of these mothers about child neglect. A questionnaire consisting of 15 scenarios about perception of child neglect and 12 behavioral descriptions about attitudes was given to the mothers of 513 children between 0 and 5 years who were followed in the Gazi University Well-Child Clinic. High scores indicated better perception and positive attitudes about child neglect. The scores revealed that child neglect perception scores of the mothers were lower when his or her spouse's education levels were 8 years or lower, the mother was not working, the family's monthly income was low, and the parents smoked at home. Child neglect attitude scores were low when the mother's or her spouse's education levels were 8 years or lower, the father was unoccupied, the family's monthly income was low, the parents smoked at home, the birth order of child was high, and the child's medical history revealed he or she had had previous accidents. For building effective preventive strategies, traditional community perspectives and cultural characteristics concerning child neglect should be understood.