Objective: The aim of this study was to show the effect of erythropoietin on ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative damage in fetal rat brain. Methods: Fetal brain ischemia was induced by clamping the utero-ovarian artery bilaterally for 20 min, and reperfusion was achieved by removing the clamps for 30 min. The control group was made up of noninjured rats that were 19 days pregnant. In the ischemia-reperfusion group no treatment was given, while 0.4 ml of human serum albumin solution and 5,000 U/kg recombinant human erythropoietin (r-Hu-EPO) were administered in the vehicle and treatment groups 30 min before ischemia-reperfusion injury. Lipid peroxidation in the brain tissue was determined as the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) for each fetal rat. A one-way analysis of variance and the post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. Results: TBARS increased to statistically significantly higher levels in fetal rat brain after ischemia-reperfusion injury than were found in the control group. Recombinant human erythropoietin prevented the increase in TBARS after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conclusion: Recombinant human erythropoietin has been shown to have neuroprotective effect in intrauterine ischemia-reperfusion-induced fetal brain damage in rats.