The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of preoperative hormonal levels and pathology, as well as the outcome of microsurgical testicular sperm extraction in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), presenting to our clinic for treatment of infertility. The records of 145 men with NOA who underwent microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) between March 2013 and November 2016 were studied. The patient's age, testicular volume, hormonal profile for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone (TT), and testicular pathology were recorded. The sperm retrieval, the clinical pregnancy and live birth delivery rates were noted. Our testicular sperm retrieval rate was 65.5%. There was no statistical difference in age, testicular volume, or hormonal levels in the TESE-positive and negative groups. Hypospermatogenesis was found in testicular histopathology in 57 of 117 patients (48.7%) who underwent testicular biopsy. Sertoli Cell-Only (SCO) syndrome was seen in 20.5%, Germ Cell Maturation Arrest (MA) in 16.3%, and Atrophy-hyalinization in 14.5%. Seven men had Klinefelter's syndrome (KS), four of whom were TESE-positive. There were no adverse effects of the procedure except for infection at the incision site in one patient. Single intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles were performed in 92 couples leading to 41 clinical pregnancies and 26 live birth deliveries. Micro-TESE is a safe procedure in experienced hands and provides infertile men with NOA an opportunity to father children. However unselected candidates with NOA should be counselled at the outset that only 17.9% will eventually become biological fathers. Copyright (C) 2017, Kaohsiung Medical University. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.