This article will look at how one female neurosurgeon in Turkey made her mark in the field. In 1954, Dr. Aysima Altinok began her residency training in neurosurgery at Haydarpaşa Numune Hospital where the first official department of neurosurgery in Turkey had been founded five years earlier. On November 22, 1959, she successfully completed her training and was certified officially as a neurosurgeon. Hence, Dr. Altinok was a leader in neurosurgery. Dr. Altinok was the chief of the department of neurosurgery from 1968 to 1992 at Bakirköy Mental and Psychological Health Hospital in Istanbul. She was among the founders of the Turkish Neurosurgical Society in 1968 and was awarded the honour of "Medical Doctor of the Year in Turkey" by the Ministry of Health in 1990. On May 15, 1996, she was accepted as an honorary member of Turkish Society of Neurosurgery for her contributions to neurosurgery. For proving the capability of a woman as a neurosurgeon, her contribution to the world history of neurosurgery should be respected. © 2007 Springer-Verlag.