The aim of the study is to analyze diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characteristics of the Guillain-Mollaret triangle (GMT) in patients with hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) and to investigate their correlation with previously reported histopathology. DTI was performed in 10 patients diagnosed with HOD. Fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity were measured in the inferior olivary nucleus (IO), the central tegmental tract, the red and the dentate nuclei, and the superior cerebellar peduncle of HOD patients and compared to age, sex, and side-matched 10 neurologically normal population. The prominent finding on DTI in affected IO was an increase in radial diffusivity compatible with demyelination. While conventional magnetic resonance imaging did not show any sign of involvement in the other components of GMT, DTI demonstrated signal changes in all anatomical components of the GMT. Main DTI findings in GMT of patients with HOD were an increase in radial diffusivity representing demyelination and an increase in axial diffusivity that is reflective of neuronal hypertrophy. DTI parameters can reflect the spatiotemporal evolution of transneuronal degeneration associated with HOD in a manner consistent with the known pathologic stages of HOD.