Objective: This study aimed to address the prevalence, the risk factors and the results of fecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) in patients who had undergone transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate (TRNBP). Patients and Methods: A total of 143 patients who had undergone TRNBP were included. Of these, 33(23%) had fecal carriage of ESBL-PE. The mean age of the patients was 62 ± 7.5 (43-81) years. Results: A univariate analysis showed that quinolone or other antibiotic use within the last 2 months, prostatitis, and diabetes mellitus (DM) were significantly associated with the presence of ESBL-PE. A multivariate analysis showed that quinolone use within the past 2 months (OR: 4.865; CI: 1.45-16.1), and DM (OR: 4.04; CI: 1.64-10) were found to be significant. Development of dysuria (p<0.001), fever (p=0.046) and chills (p=0.002) after TRNBP were shown to be related to the presence of ESBL-PE. There was no asymptomatic bacteriuria and sepsis, the rate of symptomatic urinary tract infection was 19%. Conclusion: This study showed that pre-biopsy risk factors for the presence of ESBL-PE were quinolone or other antibiotic use within the last 2 months and presence of DM. Changing prophylactic regimens should not be recommended due to the low rate of severe complications.