Eventhough restless legs syndrome (RLS) was first described more than 300 years ago, it is a common, sometimes disabling and often misdiagnosed condition. Two clinical forms of RLS were described: primary and secondary. The primary form is mostly familial. The main causes of secondary RLS are uremia, neuropathy and iron deficiency. Periodic limb movements of sleep (PLMS) are repetitive, often stereotyped movements that recur at intervals of 15-40 seconds during sleep. Between 70-80% of RLS patients also have PLMS. RLS and PLMS therapy is generally symptomatic. Cures are only possible with the secondary form where the primary illness can be cured. The drug treatments of RLS and PLMS include dopa and dopa agonists, benzodiazepines and opiates. In our experience L-Dopa and pergolide are the most effective treatments.