Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice, accounting for approximately one-third of hospitalizations for cardiac rhythm disturbances. Stroke is the most important morbidity in AF patients. Antithrombotic therapy is the most effective way to prevent thromboembolic complications of AF. Also, ischemic stroke secondary to AF carry twice the risk of death when compared with strokes from other causes. In this review, we discuss the stroke risk stratification in AF patients and antithrombotic drug usage indication in different clinical situtations according to current published guidelines.