in: Pediatric Hydrocephalus, Cinalli G,OZek MM; Sainte-Rose C, Editor, Springer, London/Berlin , Berlin, pp.493-506, 2019
Hydrocephalus has many different causes. It can be acquired or congenital, associated with many different genes, syndromes, or chromosomal abnormalities. Prematurity resulting in hemorrhage is the most common cause. Signs and symptoms of hydrocephalus differ according to age groups. In infants, macrocephaly, frontal bossing, bulging anterior fontanelle, prominent scalp veins, sunset phenomenon, and increased muscle tone are the main signs. Poor feeding, irritability, and vomiting are the main symptoms. However, in older children, besides headache, nausea, and vomiting, slowly progressive dementia, gait disorder, and visual signs are commonly observed. The visual examination shows papilledema and decreased visual acuity. Sixth nerve palsies and some difficulty with up-gaze may also be present. Hydrocephalus also affects cognitive functions and may result in severe behavioral disturbances. In summary, hydrocephalus is a serious condition with severe potential consequences in children.