Objective: To evaluate the outcome of myomectomy during cesarean section and to compare it with a control group. Materials and methods: Using a retrospective case-control. design; 40 patients who underwent myomectomy at time of cesarean delivery were compared with the control group consisted of 80 patients with myomas who underwent cesarean delivery alone. Results: The mean size of fibroids removed was 8.1 +/- 4.7 cm (range, 3-25 cm). In control group it was 5.7 +/- 2.7 cm (range, 2-14 cm). The incidence of hemorrhage in the study group was 12.5% as compared with 11.3% in the control group (p > 0.05). There was also no significant differences in the incidence of postoperative fewer and frequency of blood transfusion between myomectomy and control groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Myomectomy during cesarean section is not always a hazardous procedure and it can be performed without significant complications by experienced obstetricians. (c) 2005 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.