Cardiovascular disease is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in children with end-stage renal failure. Chronic inflammation and malnutrition have been suggested to be risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, to date, biomarkers of inflammation have not been well studied in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between chronic inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors in children on hemodialysis therapy. Twenty-seven patients on hemodialysis (14 girls, 13 boys) of mean age 15.3 +/- 2.4 years and 20 healthy children (13 girls, 7 boys) of mean age 14.3 +/- 2.7 years were included the study. C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, ferritin, and fibrinogen were measured as the markers of inflammation. The levels of CRP, ferritin, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate among hemodialysis patients were significantly higher than those of control subjects (P <.001 for all). Albumin and transferrin levels were found to be lower than those of control group (P =.02 and P <.001, respectively). CRP levels were negatively correlated with albumin, prealbumin, apoprotein A(1), HDL, and hemoglobin levels, and positively correlated with erythropoietin/Htc ratios. This study suggests that hemodialyzed children are exposed to chronic inflammation. In addition, CRP may be an indicator of chronic inflammation related to cardiovascular risk factors, such as malnutrition, dyslipidemia, and anemia. In conclusion, we suggest that the risk of cardiovascular disease could be reduced by defining markers of chronic inflammation and malnutrition in hemodialyzed children and by taking necessary measures at an early stage.