In this study, the diagnostic efficiency of virtual bronchoscopy, which is a new and helpful method to conventional fiberoptic bronchoscopy, has been investigated for endobronchial lung tumors and its clinical applications are discussed. 36 patients with clinically suspected lung cancer (28 males, 8 females, mean age 61; range from 39 to 74) underwent multislice computed tomography (MSCT) virtual bronchoscopy and then conventional bronchoscopy on the same day. For all patients, investigators were uninformed about results of conventional bronchoscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of virtual bronchoscopy were calculated using conventional bronchoscopy results as standard reference values. In 12 patients, convetional bronchoscopy did not show pathologic findings. In 24 cases pathologic findings were detected; mucosal infiltration was observed in three cases, vegetating lesions were detected in 21 cases. Review of these 21 cases demonstrated preocclusive stenosis in five and various degrees of luminal stenosis in 16 cases. All 21 tumoral lesions observed with conventional bronchoscopy were also detected with virtual bronchoscopy. Retrospective evaluation of six lesions visualized with virtual bronchoscopy but not detected with conventional bronchoscopy showed that they consisted of highly viscous mucous secretion. No abnormalities were detected on both conventional and virtual bronchoscopy in six patients. Three mucosal infiltrations observed on conventional bronchoscopy were not visualised on virtual bronchoscopy. The sensitivity of MSCT virtual bronchoscopy was 88% and specificity was 50% which is concordant with the literature. Positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy was found 78%, 66% and 75%, respectively.