The aim of this work is to stress the importance of and discuss the timing and options for the treatment of congenital aural atresia (CAA), including non-surgical alternative treatment modalities and amplification, and to report the audiological and surgical results of a series of patients. Thirty-eight children with CAA were evaluated with regard to hearing and anatomical anomalies accompanying CAA: the state of the ossicles and the facial nerve, postoperative complications and audiological results. The ages of the patients ranged between 4 and 18 years, with a mean of 10 years. All underwent surgical treatment; 32 had unilateral atresia, while 6 had bilateral atresia. The mean follow-up duration was 7 months. The facial canal was dehiscent in 36.8% of cases. In 70.2% cases, the malleus and incus were present as an ossicular mass, fixed and attached to the atretic bone. The stapes was normal in 97.3% of the patients; in 2.7% the suprastructure was deformed. The success rate, defined as an air-bone gap of 20 dB or less, was 63.1% in this series of patients.