Epilepsy is a serious chronic brain disorder of childhood. We performed a cross-sectional prevalence study, determined the prevalence of childhood epilepsy, and identified the significance of certain risk factors for epilepsy among 1625 primary-school students aged 6-14 years, living in the center of Kars province. A questionnaire was prepared according to the definitions and principles of the Commission on Epidemiology and Prognosis, International League Against Epilepsy. Twenty-two children were diagnosed as epileptic. The point prevalence of active epilepsy in males was 4.9/1000, and in females 12.4/1000, representing a total of 8.6/1000. The cumulative prevalence in males was 11.0/1000, and 16.1/1000 in females, representing a total of 13.5/1000. Febrile convulsions, family history of epilepsy, serious maternal illness during pregnancy, a history of head trauma, antenatal/postnatal problems, and a history of neonatal jaundice were statistically significantly related to the development of epilepsy. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.