The aim of this study was to investigate whether external fixation is a risk factor for refracture by comparing the outcomes of children who received three different forms of treatment of femoral fractures. One hundred ninety-two patients treated for femoral fracture between 1990 and 1999 who underwent final examination were assessed. One hundred were treated with hip spica casting after traction, 57 with closed reduction and external fixation, and 35 with open reduction and external fixation. Morbidity results such as time to union, length of hospital stay, refracture, and wire site infection were statistically evaluated. Patients undergoing open reduction had a greater time to union and length of hospital stay and a higher refracture rate. The difference was statistically significant. Wire site infection occurred in all three groups; there was no statistically significant difference between groups. The authors concluded that external fixation is not a risk factor for refracture in the treatment of pediatric closed femoral diaphyseal fractures, and that it may be used with case in clinics with shortages of personnel and space.