The course of the transfer catheter through the cervical canal is one of the most important issues for a successful embryo transfer (ET) during in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Technically difficult ETs due to cervical stenosis are associated with reduced chance of pregnancy after assisted reproductive procedures. In the current case series, we report on three patients with cervical stenosis who underwent IVF-ET cycles. These three patients, in whom ET was classified as "difficult," failed to conceive with previous ET attempts. An intervention to create a cervical tract was performed with operative hysteroscopy under general anesthesia before transcervical ET. After the hysteroscopic shaving procedure, we observed quite an improvement in access to the endometrial cavity during ET procedure. These patients had significantly easier ET procedures compared with previous attempts and achieved clinical pregnancies. Hysteroscopic revision of the cervical canal results in easier ET and improves pregnancy rates in patients with cervical stenosis and histories of difficult ET. (c) 2005 AAGL. All rights reserved.