Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of secondary cytoreductive surgery (SCRS) on survival and to determine prognostic factors that may predict surgical and survival outcome. Study Design Between 1999 and 2011, data of 67 patients who had SCRS for epithelial ovarian cancer were evaluated. Factors that had an impact on survival were determined by statistical analysis. Results Univariate analysis showed that the number of chemotherapy cycles after primary surgery, CA 125 level at SCRS, number of recurrent tumors, recurrence before SCRS, disease dissemination, and number of chemotherapy cycles after SCRS were significantly associated with disease free survival after SCRS. In multivariate analysis, serum CA125 level, tumor dissemination, and number of chemotherapy cycles after SCRS were significantly associated with disease free survival. Moreover, univariate analysis showed that recurrence before SCRS was significantly associated with overall survival. Conclusion SCRS may be beneficial for first relapsed, localized paclitaxel/platinum sensitive epithelial ovarian tumors and patients with a low serum CA 125 level and those who will receive =6 chemotherapy cycles after SCRS. This procedure should be considered in selected patient populations. J. Surg. Oncol. 2012; 106:369375. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.