Background: Demodex folliculorum (DF), which is a resident in human pilosebaceous follicles, has been implicated in infections of patients under cancer chemotherapy and with AIDS. Objective: We aimed to determine the influence of immunosuppression on carriage of DE Methods: Mite density was compared, of 30 renal transplant (RT) patients under a combination therapy of cyclosporine, azathioprine and prednisolone with that of age-and sex-matched controls. Two samples of standardized skin surface biopsies were taken from each subject. Results: DF was not found in any of the RT patients while a mean density of 0.55 DF/cm(2) was present in healthy subjects (Fisher's exact test, p<0.0001). The relationship between mite density and classic risk factors was not found to be statistically significant (Fisher's exact test, p>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that there may be other factors than immunosuppressive therapy influencing DF density.